Contraception: Meaning, Importance, Methods, Abortion
Contraception is an essential tool both in stopping undesirable pregnancies in pre-marital partners in addition to family planning. Abortion is a primary result of unwanted pregnancies. Abortion is still unlawful in Nigeria, besides for reasonable circumstances.
Sadly, Unsafe Abortion carried out through unlicensed individuals underneath hazardous conditions leading to deaths and numerous injuries.
Hence, the importance of contraception can’t be overemphasized.
What is Contraception
Contraception is the prevention of being pregnant. Correct and constant use of contraceptives would help save you most accidental pregnancies, and additionally abortions.
Know that there’s no form of birth control that is 100 percent effective. There can be durations when it could fail. However, it could prevent pregnancies approximately 90% of the time.
How do Contraceptives Work?
Different sorts of contraceptives work in different ways. They include;
Prevents Entry of Sperm: this is how the barrier methods like Condoms and Va.ginal caps work.
Prevent ovulation: some drugs work to save you the lady from ovulating. e.g., oral emergency contraception.
Prevent sperms from accomplishing the egg: as visible in lady and male sterilization (Vasectomy).
Prevent Implantation of a Fertilized embryo: e.g., Cu-IUD and LNG-IUS.
Allow sperm into the vagina but poison them: e.g., spermicides.
Fertility awareness-primarily based strategies (FAB): avoid intercourse throughout the fertile period of the cycle.
What a female needs to recognize earlier before choosing a method of contraception
How to apply the technique
what to do while no longer used well
How lengthy it takes for fertility to return after stopping.
Methods of birth control
Birth control (contraception) is any method, medicine, or device used to prevent pregnancy. Women can choose from many different types of birth control. Some work better than others at preventing pregnancy.
Physical (barrier) methods include;
Condoms: they’re available in both male and woman forms. Male condoms are of latex; additionally, defend in opposition to STIs, which include HIV. A lady condom is lubricated, and it is of polyurethane. It inserted inside the va.gina. It also protects against STIs.
Diaphragm and cap: A diaphragm or cap is a barrier method of contraception. It fits inside your vagina and prevents sperm from passing through the cervix (the entrance of your womb). You need to use it with a gel that kills sperm (spermicide). It can cause multiplied va.ginal discharge and urinary tract infections. Know that this does not protect you, STIs.
Hormonal Methods Include;
Combined hormonal contraception: These are taken as oral pills, a transdermal patch, and as a va.ginal ring. They work by using preventing ovulation.
Progestogen-most effective contraceptive methods: They are taking; as oral, injectable, implant, and intrauterine systems.
These also prevent ovulation.
Intrauterine contraceptives: e.g., Cu-IUD, LNG-IUS. It lasts for about three to ten years (or extra) depending on the type used. It stops fertilization & Inhibits Implantation. They do not prevent ovulation. In the first few months of use, many women might revel in unpredictable bleeding, which typically improves with time.
Side-effects of Hormonal Contraception
Common side-consequences that women report with all hormonal techniques are unusual bleeding, weight gain, headaches, temper swings, and lack of libido.
Know that there’s no definite evidence that hormonal methods cause weight gain. If bleeding troubles persist for more than three months, see a physician.
Permanent methods include Male & Female Sterilization (called Vasectomy).
Female sterilization: involves making little adjustments on the tube, that would prevent sperm from accomplishing the oocyte in the Fallopian tube.
Advice to ladies considering sterilization
- This technique is irreversible. You can’t undo it if you want to get pregnant once more later.
- It does not defend you from STIs.
- Contraception desires for use after the procedure until the menstrual duration suggests to save you the danger of Ectopic pregnancy.
Vasectomy: This is a permanent sterilization technique for men. In this technique, the vas deferens in men are interrupted/blocked; hence there would be no passage of sperms.
It’s all about a woman understanding her fertile duration and secure periods with avoidance of intercourse at that time. It requires motivation and a regular menstrual cycle. It depends on the use of one or more of the following strategies to monitor and keep away from intercourse in the fertile days.
Calendar or rhythm technique: see here for an explanation.
Temperature approach: This is predicated at the growth in body temperature following ovulation and observing your daily temperature. Some Infections, exercise, and medications can also affect body temperature and interfere with this approach.
Cervical/Va.ginal mucus technique: Mucus on lavatory tissue is tested for consistency. Midcycle’ creamy’ mucus is watery, clear, and slippery like raw egg white. After ovulation, it will become thick and opaque like pap.
Cervical palpation: At midcycle, the cervix rises 1–2 cm and feels softer and moist.
Lactational amenorrhoea: This makes use of the first six months after delivery while a mom is breastfeeding (vital) and is still yet to see her period, then the threat of being pregnant is set 2%. After six months or after breastfeeding,
Emergency birth control
Every girl merits a second hazard to prevent an undesirable pregnancy.
The Cu-IUD is the best technique for emergency contraception to be had. It is active even up to 5 days after unsafe sex or five days after likely ovulation.
In our environment, Postinor-2 is the most used emergency contraceptive to be had. It is useful if taken within seventy-two hours (3 days) after unprotected intercourse. Click here to read more about postinor-2.
No approach of birth control is 100% best and, subsequently, the want for secure Abortion. Safe Abortion saves mothers’ lives and forestalls the complications recorded with hazardous Abortion.
The medical method of Abortion is more secure than all gynaecological operations. Including sterilization and hysterectomy, and there may be a lower chance of dying than for the duration of childbirth.
However, Abortion in Nigeria remains illegal besides for real situations said inside the Nigerian Penal/Criminal code.
Under the circumstances provided for the Codes. In addition to regions where it’s far legal, and for education purposes.
Methods of Abortion
It may be medical or surgical.
Medical Abortion; This is 95 percent effective inside the first eight weeks of being pregnant. It involves the use of mifepristone (a progesterone receptor modulator), followed with the aid of a prostaglandin analog, misoprostol.
Your medical doctor could tell you of the dosages that could be OK for you in the course of prescription.
Simple oral analgesic (e.g. Ibuprofen, dihydrocodeine) may be taken for the pain.
Bleeding can take any time from 9-16 days.
This process has to be handiest, carried out using a health practitioner, and under supervision. You need to understand that an unmanaged abortion can bleed to death.
Surgical Methods: include
Vacuum aspiration: used to terminate a being pregnant of up to fourteen weeks.
Dilation and Curettage/evacuation (D & C): It is the use of surgical instruments (such as forceps). In the hands of unskilled persons, this could result in uterine perforation & loss of life. This process is very delicate and has killed a lot in Africa
Please, cease from performing abortions at the palms of untrained persons & quacks.
Complications of Abortion
Both medical and surgical Abortion have their headaches. They include;
- failure to quit the being pregnant (ongoing being pregnant)
- incomplete abortion requiring evacuation
- infection and haemorrhage
- Uterine Perforation
- chance of future infertility or ectopic pregnancy.
Remember, Abortion is a criminal offense in Nigeria until if completed below certain situations as provided for within the Penal/criminal code.
Unsafe Abortion kills quite a few young girls and women each year.